Legacy Research is highly regarded for quality work and attentive service that assists clients through the environmental compliance process. The company has worked for the Department of Transportation in Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina, as well as many engineering firms in the eastern United States. Legacy has also conducted grant-funded archaeological research investigations through the National Park Service Historic Preservation Fund and contract-funded historic preservation work for the US National Forest, Federal Aviation Agency, Tennessee Valley Authority, and Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Legacy’s client list also includes regional and county agencies, land developers, private firms, and individuals.
CLIENT: ALCOA POWER GENERATING INC.
PROJECT: TAPOCO AND YADKIN HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT RELICENSING
Legacy has conducted numerous archaeological investigations in support of APGI’s relicensing of these two hydroelectric projects. Projects include developing a predictive model for archaeological site location, testing the predictive model, archaeological survey at Forest Service recreational areas along the reservoir shorelines, archaeological testing of sites recommended as being potentially eligible for the National Register, and conducting mitigation research for National Register eligible sites.
CLIENT: NORTH CAROLINA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
PROJECT: POTTERY KILN EXCAVATION
The excavation of the remains of a ca. 1900 groundhog kiln in the North Carolina Piedmont region resulted in recovering more than 4,000 ceramic artifacts that were predominately under-fired, which suggests that the kiln was being fired at the time it collapsed. Ceramic vessel types include unglazed flower pots and drain pipe. The flower pots had scalloped rims and were unsigned. The drain pipes recovered from the kiln excavation are unusual because they are not commonly produced in the southeastern United States. The drain pipe, which was very likely intended to be buried while in use, was the only signed vessel type recovered from the kiln and that these were not consistently marked.
CLIENT: DUKE ENERGY INC.
PROJECT: FRANKLIN AND EAST FORK HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT RELICENSING
Legacy has conducted numerous archaeological investigations in support of Duke Energy’s relicensing of these two hydroelectric projects. Projects include an archaeological survey along the reservoir shorelines to identify sites that may be eligible for the National Register.
CLIENT: US FOREST SERVICE
PROJECT: TIMBER THINNING IN THE FRANCIS MARION AND SUMTER NATIONAL FOREST AND THE NANTAHALA NATIONAL FOREST
Legacy conducted historic research and archaeological field investigations for 4,555 acres of Forest Service Land in the Enoree Ranger District and 460 acres in the Nantahala Ranger District prior to timber thinning activities to identify significant archaeological resources that need to be avoided and protected.
CLIENT: FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION
PROJECT: OCONEE COUNTY AIRPORT RUNWAY EXPANSION CEMETERY RELOCATION
Legacy has conducted historic research and archaeological field investigations to document an historic cemetery that was located in an area of airport expansion. Graves were exhumed and reinterred at a nearby church cemetery.
CLIENT: DEWBERRY & DAVIS, INC.
PROJECT: BRUNSWICK COUNTY LANDFILL EXPANSION
Legacy has conducted historic research and archaeological field investigations on 260 acres along Bear Swamp to locate significant cultural resources that may be affected by the expansion of a landfill.
CLIENT: UHF DEVELOPMENT GROUP – RIVER STATION PROJECT
PROJECT: NEW BERN EXCAVATIONS AT THE SITE OF A CIVIL WAR-ERA CATTLE PEN, LATE-19TH-CENTURY LUMBER YARD, EARLY-20TH-CENTURY RAILROAD TURNTABLE, AND MID-20TH-CENTURY OIL COMPANY
Trench and excavation block excavation documented undisturbed deposits of 18th-century and 19th-century cultural material at 3.5 feet below surface underlying layers of fill and storm sand. A total of 92 historic-period features were identified during the excavation. These were primarily post holes with and without post molds, trash pits, a re-interred burial, and burned timbers. In addition, architectural features associated with the railroad include a brick turntable, railroad ties, and a concrete foundation.
CLIENT: MCGILL ASSOCIATES
PROJECT: EXCAVATIONS AT A CHEROKEE TOWN DESTROYED IN 1776 RUTHERFORD EXPEDITION
This excavation resulted in documenting numerous pit and post features, as well as three burials that are associated with the prehistoric/late prehistoric/protohistoric/early historic period of site occupation. An intact cultural zone, 4-8 inch thick, was documented underlying the plow zone. The zone yielded a large amount of cultural material. Artifacts recovered from the site are diagnostic of a Woodland period to historic Cherokee occupation. Ceramics include regional types, such as Swannanoa, Pigeon, Connestee, Pisgah, and Qualla. The majority of ceramics recovered during this investigation are Qualla that is associated with the Late Mississippian period (pre AD 1450) through the early Historic era. Modified lithics from the site include an Early Woodland Bradley Spike projectile point/knife, a hammerstone, fire-cracked rock, and various tool-making debris. Lithics include local materials, such as chalcedony, quartzite, quartz, orthoquartzite, rhyolite, as well as non-local Knox chert.
CLIENT: HAGERSMITH DESIGN
PROJECT: LEIGH FARM PARK RESTORATION AND RECONSTRUCTION
Legacy has conducted historic research and archaeological investigations prior to and during the construction associated with the restoration and reconstruction of Leigh Farm Park, a 90-acre nature preserve that is the site of a 19th century plantation which features an antebellum house and a cluster of farm buildings including a dairy, smokehouse, and slaves' quarters.
CLIENT: BAKER ENGINEERING
PROJECT: SOUTHEAST HIGH SPEED RAIL PROJECT
Legacy conducted historic research and archaeological field investigations for the proposed Southeast High Speed Rail Project between Richmond, VA, and Raleigh, NC, as part of the project planning and development.
CLIENT: KIMLEY HORN AND ASSOCIATES
PROJECT: QUARRY EXPANSION
Legacy has conducted historic research and archaeological field investigations on 1,867 acres along the Cape Fear River in New Hanover County to locate significant cultural resources that may be affected by the expansion of a quarry.
CLIENT: ENVIRONMENTAL BANC & EXCHANGE LLC
PROJECT: STREAM AND WETLAND RESTORATION PROJECTS
Legacy has conducted numerous archaeological field investigations along streams across North Carolina prior to state-funded streambank restoration and wetland creation. The purpose of the work was to identify significant archaeological resources that need to be avoided and protected. Mitigation plans were developed as needed.
CLIENT: TOWN OF HILTON HEAD, SC
PROJECT: DATA-RECOVERY EXCAVATIONS AT 38BU1967 FOR PROPOSED PUBLIC BEACH ACCESS AREA
Three components (one prehistoric and two historic) were identified at 38BU1967 during the archaeological investigations. These are: Late Archaic to Middle Woodland period; early- to middle-nineteenth-century Fish Haul Plantation; and ca. 1863-1868 Mitchelville/late-nineteenth to early-twentieth-century Freedmen’s occupation of Hilton Head Island. Of these components, the Mitchelville/Freedmen’s occupation is the best represented by the artifact assemblages.
Legacy’s data-recovery excavations documented numerous features associated with the Mitchelville and post-Mitchelville freedmen occupation of Hilton Head Island. A culture-bearing soil horizon overlying features was documented during the excavation. The depth of the zone varied from 1-2.5 ft. Ground-disturbing activities associated with the proposed beach access project should not exceed 9.4 in so that intact archaeological deposits would not be affected. Monitoring of the site during construction was the recommended mitigation strategy.
CLIENT: ORANGE COUNTY
PROJECT: JUSTICE CENTER EXPANSION PROJECT
Legacy conducted archaeological investigations prior to the construction associated with the expansion of the Justice Center in historic Hillsborough. Based on the artifacts recovered from the site and historic documents that indicate a residence was on the property around 1768, it appears likely that the pottery kiln dates from the early to mid-1700s. Mitigation excavations were conducted on the part of the site that could not be avoided by construction; the remaining sections of the site are now protected.
CLIENT: DURHAM COUNTY
PROJECT: LITTLE RIVER REGIONAL PARK AND NATURAL AREA
During the planning phase of developing the park facilities, Legacy conducted archaeological survey of the property and documented 16 prehistoric/historic sites; additional work was conducted in area that had road traces, house sites, a mill site, a river ford, and a spring to better define the relationship between the historic period archaeological sites and to provide recommendations for site protection and interpretation.
CLIENT: RESTORATION SYSTEMS
PROJECT: MILBURNIE DAM REMOVAL PROJECT
Legacy conducted historic research and archaeological field investigations on the 150-year old stone dam across the Neuse River prior to its dismantling that return the river to it’s natural flow.